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Dogs – Page 2

Chocolate Poisoning

• Chocolate ingestion is hazardous to pets; if you suspect your pet has eaten chocolate, chocolate-containing products, or cocoa bean hull mulch, contact your veterinarian immediately
• Describe the type of chocolate and amount of exposure to your veterinarian; take your pet to a veterinary hospital as a potential poisoning emergency
• Chocolate is among the 20 most common poisonings reported in recent literature by small animal veterinary practices, animal poison control centers, and human poison control centers
• Keep chocolate in a secure location, out of reach of pets
• Be especially careful around holidays when chocolate products and candies are readily available
• Do not use cocoa bean hull mulch in areas accessible to pets

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Arthritis (Osteoarthritis)

• “Arthritis” is the medical term for inflammation of the joints; “osteoarthritis” is a form of joint inflammation (arthritis) characterized by long-term (chronic) deterioration or degeneration of the joint cartilage
• Progressive and permanent deterioration of joint cartilage
• Also known as “degenerative joint disease” or DJD

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Urinary Incontinence

• Loss of voluntary control of urination, usually observed as involuntary urine leakage
• Medium- to large-breed dogs most often affected
• Most common in middle-aged to old, spayed female dogs
• Obesity may increase the risk of urinary incontinence in spayed female dogs
• Urinary tract infection is a possible complication of urinary incontinence

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Separation Anxiety Syndrome

~ A distress response of dogs (occasionally cats) separated from the person or persons to whom they are most attached
~ The separation may be real (the person is gone from the home environment) or perceived (the pet is just located away from the person, as being in a different room)
~ The resulting may lead to episodes of destruction, vocalization, and elimination
~ Separation anxiety is a subset of separation-related problems that may have different underlying motivations, including fear, anxiety, over attachment to the person(s), and lack of appropriate stimulation or interactions

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Periodontal Disease

• Periodontal disease is the most common infectious disease in dogs and cats
• Periodontal disease can lead to infection in other areas of the body and may cause heart, liver, and or kidney disease
• Professional dental cleaning and home care are essential for prevention of periodontal disease
• Your pet’s veterinarian will discuss home care and available products and will provide instructions for their use

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Housesoiling—Dogs

• Proper housetraining should be stressed with clients from the very beginning
• Potential long-term management necessary to control the problem
• Treat underlying/contributing medical problems
• Treat other underlying/contributing behavioral problems
• Inappropriate elimination is the most common individual reason for relinquishment of a pet to a shelter

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Heartworm Disease in Dogs

• Routine heartworm preventive medication (as directed by your dog’s veterinarian) is key to preventing your dog from becoming infested with heartworms; heartworm disease is a preventable disease
• Good prognosis for pets with mild-to-moderate heartworm disease
• Complications involving the lungs following administration of medication to kill the adult heartworms (post-adulticide pulmonary complications) likely in pets with moderate-to-severe heartworm disease
• Reinfestation can occur, unless appropriate heartworm preventive medication is administered

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Cushing’s Syndrome in Dogs

~ “Spontaneous” hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) or Cushing’s syndrome is a disorder caused by excessive production of steroids by the adrenal glands; “spontaneous” denotes lack of apparent cause
~ Spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism is a hormonal disorder; it can involve problems in the pituitary gland (the “master gland” of the body), in which case the pituitary gland “directs” the adrenal glands to produce excessive amounts of steroids—this type is known as “pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism” or PDH, or it can involve problems in the adrenal gland itself (benign tumors or cancer), in which the adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of steroids on “their own” and not under the control of the pituitary gland

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Crate Training Your Puppy

One of the easiest and most effective ways of housebreaking your new puppy is to use a crate or airline carrier. With this method, the crate becomes the pup’s own “room” for sleeping. Put in bedding and a non-spillable waterbowl. A period of adjustment is required, but most dogs come to prefer their den for sleeping.

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Bad Breath

• Bad breath or halitosis is a sign; it is an offensive odor coming from the mouth
• Bad breath (halitosis) generally indicates an unhealthy mouth
• Once the specific cause of the bad breath (halitosis) is known, direct therapy at correcting the underlying cause
• Ensure good oral health by professional and home dental care (such as brushing teeth) to decrease bad breath (halitosis)

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